A systematic approach to the clinical history, physical, and arthroscopic examination of patellofemoral disorders will lead to improved diagnostic accuracy and clinical treatment success. We review important aspects of physical and arthroscopic examination of patellofemoral disorders. Basic and advanced physical examination techniques are presented, and their clinical significance is reviewed. Arthroscopic examination of the patellofemoral joint is used as an adjunct to physical examination to evaluate chondral lesions of the patella and femoral sulcus and to visualize patellar tracking. Techniques to assess patellar tracking and the integrity of patellar restraints and to grade chondral lesions are outlined. Utilization of these techniques will improve clinical studies on the treatment of patellofemoral disorders.
J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 1998;28(5):277-285.
Key Words: knee pain, physical examination, extensor mechanism, malalignment