STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional cohort. OBJECTIVES: (1) To examine differences in clinical variables (demographics, knee impairments, and self-report measures) between those who return to preinjury level of sports participation and those who do not at 1 year following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction, (2) to determine the factors most strongly associated with return-to-sport status in a multivariate model, and (3) to explore the discriminatory value of clinical variables associated with return to sport at 1 year postsurgery. BACKGROUND: Demographic, physical impairment, and psychosocial factors individually prohibit return to preinjury levels of sports participation. However, it is unknown which combination of factors contributes to sports participation status. METHODS: Ninety-four patients (60 men; mean age, 22.4 years) 1 year post–anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction were included. Clinical variables were collected and included demographics, knee impairment measures, and self-report questionnaire responses. Patients were divided into “yes return to sports” or “no return to sports” groups based on their answer to the question, “Have you returned to the same level of sports as before your injury?” Group differences in demographics, knee impairments, and self-report questionnaire responses were analyzed. Discriminant function analysis determined the strongest predictors of group classification. Receiver-operating-characteristic curves determined the discriminatory accuracy of the identified clinical variables. RESULTS: Fifty-two of 94 patients (55%) reported yes return to sports. Patients reporting return to preinjury levels of sports participation were more likely to have had less knee joint effusion, fewer episodes of knee instability, lower knee pain intensity, higher quadriceps peak torque-body weight ratio, higher score on the International Knee Documentation Committee Subjective Knee Evaluation Form, and lower levels of kinesiophobia. Knee joint effusion, episodes of knee instability, and score on the International Knee Documentation Committee Subjective Knee Evaluation Form were identified as the factors most strongly associated with self-reported return-to-sport status. The highest positive likelihood ratio for the yes-return-to-sports group classification (14.54) was achieved when patients met all of the following criteria: no knee effusion, no episodes of instability, and International Knee Documentation Committee Subjective Knee Evaluation Form score greater than 93. CONCLUSION: In multivariate analysis, the factors most strongly associated with return-to-sport status included only self-reported knee function, episodes of knee instability, and knee joint effusion. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Prognosis, level 2b.
J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2012;42(11):893-901, Epub 2 August 2012. doi:10.2519/jospt.2012.4077
KEY WORDS: ACL, kinesiophobia, return to sports
STUDY DESIGN: Prospective longitudinal. OBJECTIVE: To quantify the temporal development of magnetic resonance imaging changes in oropharyngeal morphometry in subjects with varying levels of disability following a whiplash injury. BACKGROUND: A recent cross-sectional investigation has identified reductions in the size and shape of the oropharynx in subjects with chronic whiplash-related disability when compared to healthy controls. The temporal development of such changes and their relationship to persistent disability have yet to be investigated. METHODS: Forty-one subjects (30 women) with acute whiplash injury were included. Repeated measures T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging was used to measure and compare cross-sectional area (CSA) in square millimeters and shape ratio (SR) of the oropharynx at 4 weeks, 3 months, and 6 months postinjury. Subjects were classified at 6 months by their Neck Disability Index scores into the following categories: recovered (less than 8%), mild disability (10%-28%), and moderate/severe disability (greater than 30%). The effects of time and group and the interaction effect of group by time on oropharynx morphometry (CSA, SR) were investigated using repeated-measures, linear, mixed-model analysis. Based on previous research findings, age, gender, and body mass index were entered into the analyses as covariates. Where significant main or interaction effects were detected, pairwise comparisons were performed to investigate specific differences in the dependent variable between groups and within groups over time. RESULTS: There was a significant interaction effect for group by time for both the CSA and SR values. Age significantly influenced SR (P = .024) and body mass index significantly influenced CSA (P = .001). There was no difference in CSA or SR across all groups at 4 weeks postinjury. However, at 6 months, CSA was significantly different between the recovered group and the moderate/severe group (P = .001). The recovered group demonstrated a significant increase in CSA (P = .04) over time, whereas the moderate/severe group significantly decreased (P = .01). At 6 months, the moderate/severe group had a reduced SR compared to the mild group (P = .03). No differences in CSA or SR of the oropharynx were found between the mild and recovered groups throughout the study. CONCLUSION: Temporal reductions in CSA of the oropharynx occur following whiplash and persist to a greater extent in those with moderate/severe symptoms at 6 months postinjury. Studies are planned (1) to better investigate the underlying mechanisms of CSA reductions, (2) to determine their relevance to functional recovery and production of voice following whiplash, and (3) to evaluate multidisciplinary assessment and management of these patients.
J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2012;42(11):912-918. Epub 17 August 2012. doi:10.2519/jospt.2012.4280
KEY WORDS: chronic neck pain, dysphagia, oropharyngeal morphometry, pain-related disability, voice recovery
STUDY DESIGN: Clinical measurement. OBJECTIVE: To translate and culturally adapt the Lower Extremity Functional Scale (LEFS) into a Brazilian Portuguese version, and to test the construct and content validity and reliability of this version in patients with knee injuries. BACKGROUND: There is no Brazilian Portuguese version of an instrument to assess the function of the lower extremity after orthopaedic injury. METHODS: The translation of the original English version of the LEFS into a Brazilian Portuguese version was accomplished using standard guidelines and tested in 31 patients with knee injuries. Subsequently, 87 patients with a variety of knee disorders completed the Brazilian Portuguese LEFS, the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey, the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index, and the International Knee Documentation Committee Subjective Knee Evaluation Form and a visual analog scale for pain. All patients were retested within 2 days to determine reliability of these measures. Validation was assessed by determining the level of association between the Brazilian Portuguese LEFS and the other outcome measures. Reliability was documented by calculating internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and standard error of measurement. RESULTS: The Brazilian Portuguese LEFS had a high level of association with the physical component of the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (r = 0.82), the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (r = 0.87), the International Knee Documentation Committee Subjective Knee Evaluation Form (r = 0.82), and the pain visual analog scale (r = –0.60) (all, P<.05). The Brazilian Portuguese LEFS had a low level of association with the mental component of the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (r = 0.38, P<.05). The internal consistency (Cronbach α = .952) and test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.957) of the Brazilian Portuguese version of the LEFS were high. The standard error of measurement was low (3.6) and the agreement was considered high, demonstrated by the small differences between test and retest and the narrow limit of agreement, as observed in Bland-Altman and survival-agreement plots. CONCLUSION: The translation of the LEFS into a Brazilian Portuguese version was successful in preserving the semantic and measurement properties of the original version and was shown to be valid and reliable in a Brazilian population with knee injuries.
J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2012;42(11):932-939, Epub 9 October 2012. doi:10.2519/jospt.2012.4101
KEY WORDS: LEFS, reliability, validity
STUDY DESIGN: Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. OBJECTIVES: To examine the short-term therapeutic effects of monochromatic infrared energy (MIRE) on participants with knee osteoarthritis (OA). Patients were assessed according to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health. BACKGROUND: MIRE is commonly used in therapy for patients with peripheral neuropathies. However, research has not focused intensively on the therapeutic effects of MIRE in patients with knee OA. METHODS: This study enrolled 73 participants with knee OA. Participants received six 40-minute sessions of active or placebo MIRE treatment (890-nm wavelength; power, 6.24 W; energy density, 2.08 J/cm2/min; total energy, 83.2 J/cm2) over the knee joints for 2 weeks. International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health–related outcomes were collected weekly over 4 weeks using the Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score, Lysholm Knee Scale, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory, Chronic Pain Grade questionnaire, World Health Organization Quality of Life-brief version, and OA Quality of Life Questionnaire. Data were analyzed by repeated-measures analysis of variance. RESULTS: No statistically significant differences were found for the interaction of group by time for Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score scores, including pain, other symptoms, function in daily living, function in sport and recreation, and knee-related quality of life. Scores on the Lysholm Knee Scale, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory, Chronic Pain Grade questionnaire, World Health Organization Quality of Life-brief version, and OA Quality of Life Questionnaire also showed no significant differences between the 2 groups at any of the 4 follow-up assessments. CONCLUSION: Short-term MIRE therapy provided no beneficial effects to body functions, activities, participation, and quality of life in patients with knee OA. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Therapy, level 1b–.
J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2012;42(11):947-956, Epub 5 September 2012. doi:10.2519/jospt.2012.3881
KEY WORDS: International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health, knee osteoarthritis, monochromatic infrared energy, therapeutic effect
Perspectives for Patients
Feelings or thoughts of depression may be associated with a muscle or joint injury. When pain and depressive symptoms occur together, they can produce long-lasting problems. It can be difficult to know if these thoughts and feelings are caused by the pain or some other issue. Physical therapists focus on treating musculoskeletal problems; however, for some patients, depressed feelings may ease with treatment designed to decrease pain and improve function. Other patients may require specialized treatment for symptoms of depression in addition to physical therapy. This is especially true when depressed thoughts and feelings persist, pain has not resolved, and return to work has not been achieved. A study published in the November 2012 issue of JOSPT evaluated the change in feelings or thoughts of depression during physical therapy and how it relates to a person’s work status 1 year later.
J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2012;42(11):968. doi:10.2519/jospt.2012.0507
KEY WORDS: depressed feelings, depressive symptoms, pain